Below is the website for more specific information.

The new Cervical Screening Test is similar to the Pap test. The new Cervical Screening Test is based on the latest medical and scientific evidence and is more effective at detecting the virus that causes cervical abnormalities at an earlier stage. It is now better understood how cervical cancer develops. Cervical cancer is rare and it usually takes 10 or more years for the virus that causes most precancerous abnormalities to develop into cervical cancer. It is expected that the changes to the National Cervical Screening Program following the introduction of the new Cervical Screening Test will protect up to 30% more women from cervical cancer.

What does the Cervical Screening Test detect? The Cervical Screening Test looks for the common human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the cells of your cervix. HPV is so common that many people have it at some point in their lives and never know it as there are usually no symptoms. What is HPV? There are many types of HPV infections and most are cleared naturally by the body’s immune system within one to two years without causing problems. HPV is a very common infection that is spread by genital-skin to skin contact during sexual activity. HPV is so common that many people have it at some point in their lives and never know it as there are usually no symptoms. In rare cases, some types of HPV infection that are not cleared by the body can cause abnormal cervical cell changes.


What does my test result mean?

Your healthcare provider will talk to you about your Cervical Screening Test results. Possible results include:
• Return to screen in five years
• Repeat the HPV test in 12 months
• Refer to specialist
• Unsatisfactory test result

Depending on your result, your healthcare provider may refer you to a specialist for further investigations. The following information explains some of these procedures and treatments.


What is a Colposcopy?

A colposcopy is an examination of your cervix. During this examination, the specialist will use a device called a colposcope, which looks like a pair of binoculars on a stand; providing a magnified view of your cervix. A colposcopy is done by a specialist, usually a gynaecologist. Your healthcare provider can help you decide who to see for the colposcopy.


How is a colposcopy test done?

When you arrive for the appointment, it is fine to ask as many questions about the test as you like. Ask the specialist to explain what they are doing throughout the examination if that will help you. To have a colposcopy test, you will be asked to lie on an examination bed with your legs supported, in a similar position to when you have a Cervical Screening Test. Like the Cervical Screening Test, the specialist will insert a speculum into your vagina. The specialist will then put a special liquid onto your cervix to highlight any abnormal areas. The specialist will then look through the colposcope to carefully examine your cervix. The colposcope itself does not enter the body. This examination usually takes 10 – 15 minutes and most people do not experience any pain. However, you may have some discomfort from having the speculum inside your vagina. Ask your specialist to explain what it means if something is found during the examination.




What is a Biopsy?

If areas of your cervix appear abnormal during the colposcopy, a small sample of tissue (a biopsy) may be taken from any abnormal looking areas of the cervix. This sample will be sent to a laboratory for testing. It may take up to two weeks for the results of your biopsy to come back to your healthcare provider.

You should make an appointment with your healthcare provider to discuss the results and talk about treatment (if needed). If you have a biopsy, you may have some pain for a short time.

Avoid rigorous exercise for 24 hours after a biopsy and it is best to avoid sexual intercourse for one to two days. You can shower, however avoid swimming, bathing and spas for one to two days. These precautions reduce your risk of bleeding and/or infection. You may have some discharge and ‘spotting’ for a few hours afterwards, so it is a good idea to take a thin sanitary pad or panty liner to the appointment.


Treatment for Abnormalities

If an abnormality is found during your colposcopy, further treatment may be required. Your healthcare provider will talk to you about what treatment options are most appropriate for your personal circumstances.


Treatment options may include

Wire loop excision

Laser or cone biopsy

Pre-operative classification of molar pregnancy: How good is ultrasound?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
February 2020
N. Stamatopoulos, M Espada Vaquero, M Leonardi, B Nadim, A Bailey, G Condous

The proportion of women with a histological diagnosis of molar pregnancy who are diagnosed with ultrasound prior to uterine evacuation

November 2018- Under review
N. Stamatopoulos, C. Lu, M. Espada, M. Leonardi, G. Condous

The aim of this article is to assess the ability of ultrasound to diagnosis molar pregnancy.

Ultrasound follow-up in the first trimester when pregnancy viability is uncertain

Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Volume20, Issue3 August 2017 Pages 95-96
Nicole Stamatopoulos B. Pharm, MBBS, FRANZCOG, George Condous MBBS (Adel), FRANZCOG, FRCOG, MD (Lon)

An editorial discussing the followup of women who have a pregnancy of uncertain viability.

Prediction of Subsequent miscarriage risk in women who present with a viable pregnancy at the first early pregnancy scan

October 2015 Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2015 Oct 21;55(5):464-72. Epub 2015 Aug 21
Nicole Stamatopoulos, Chuan Lu, Ishwari Casikar, Shannon Reid, Max Mongelli, Nigel Hardy, George Condous

This article showed how a mathetmatical model predicted the risk of miscarriage in the first trimester could be predicted once a fetal heart rate (FHR) is seen. My current research in my PhD aims to see how good this model performs and to also develop a scoring system.

A Rare Diagnosis of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Breast

May 2013 J Womens Health, Issues Care 2013, 2:6
Nicole Stamatopoulos, Penelope De Lacavalerie, Davendra Segara

This is a case report of a woman with an unfortunate diagnosis of a rare form of breast cancer, her history, surgery and subsequent treatment.

Chlamydia trachomatis in fallopian tubes of women undergoing laparoscopy for ectopic pregnancy

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology August 2012, Volume 52: Issue 4
Nicole Stamatopoulos, Ishwari Casikar, Shannon Reid, Bronwen Roy, James Branley, Max Mongelli, George Condous

A case series to establish whether women who have had chlamydia and have subsequently had an ectopic pregnancy, have latent chlamydia in the affected fallopian tube.